Investigating the impact of professional development on teachers' instructional time and English learners' language development: a multilevel cross-classified approach Academic Article uri icon


  • 2015 Taylor & Francis. We examined the direct impact of an ongoing, intensive, and structured professional development (PD) within an English-as-second-language (ESL) instructional intervention on (a) teachers time allocation in cognitiveacademic language proficiency (CALP) and (b) Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) CALP development from the second to third grade within a multilevel cross-classified framework. Second, we explored the mediation effect of teachers time allocation. We observed that treatment teachers spent more time in CALP than control teachers as a result of the instructional intervention with PD. In addition, the treatment effect was evident in ELLs outcomes, including expressive vocabulary, oral reading fluency, and retell fluency. Finally, the treatment effect was completely mediated through teachers time allocation in CALP in the second grade on retell fluency.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Tong, F., Luo, W., Irby, B. J., Lara-Alecio, R., & Rivera, H.

citation count

  • 20

complete list of authors

  • Tong, Fuhui||Luo, Wen||Irby, Beverly J||Lara-Alecio, Rafael||Rivera, Hector

publication date

  • April 2017