The principal focus of our research is the consequences of life history and environmental change on nutrition. Our current projects are focused on ungulates (e.g., reindeer, caribou, moose, muskoxen, white-tailed deer) but we also study waterfowl (e.g. ducks and geese) as well as non-game species (e.g. porcupines and bats) in both wild and captive populations. We attempt to provide information that will expand policy options for managing wildlife populations and their habitats.