Monosodium luminol reinstates redox homeostasis, improves cognition, mood and neurogenesis, and alleviates neuro- and systemic inflammation in a model of Gulf War Illness
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Enduring brain dysfunction is amid the highly manifested symptoms in veterans with Gulf War Illness (GWI). Animal studies have established that lasting brain dysfunction in GWI is concomitant with augmented oxidative stress, inflammation, and declined neurogenesis in the brain, and systemic inflammation. We hypothesize that drugs capable of restoring redox homeostasis in GWI will improve cognitive and mood function with modulation of neuroinflammation and neurogenesis. We examined the efficacy of monosodium luminol-GVT (MSL), a drug that promotes redox homeostasis, for improving cognitive and mood function in GWI rats. Young rats were exposed to GWI-related chemicals and moderate restraint stress for four weeks. Four months later, GWI rats received different doses of MSL or vehicle for eight weeks. Behavioral analyses in the last three weeks of treatment revealed that GWI rats receiving higher doses of MSL displayed better cognitive and mood function associated with reinstatement of redox homeostasis. Such restoration was evident from the normalized expression of multiple genes encoding proteins involved in combating oxidative stress in the brain and the return of several oxidative stress markers to control levels in the brain and the circulating blood. Sustained redox homeostasis by MSL also resulted in antiinflammatory and pro-neurogenic effects, which were apparent from reduced densities of hypertrophied astrocytes and activated microglia, and increased neurogenesis with augmented neural stem cell proliferation. Moreover, MSL treatment normalized the concentration of multiple proinflammatory markers in the circulating blood. Thus, MSL treatment reinstated redox homeostasis in an animal model of GWI, which resulted in alleviation of both brain and systemic inflammation, improved neurogenesis, and better cognitive and mood function.
author list (cited authors)
Shetty, A. K., Attaluri, S., Kodali, M., Shuai, B., Shetty, G. A., Upadhya, D., ... Rao, X.