Modulation of Tetrachloroethylene-Associated Kidney Effects by Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver or Steatohepatitis in Male C57BL/6J Mice
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Accounting for genetic and other (eg, underlying disease states) factors that may lead to inter-individual variability in susceptibility to xenobiotic-induced injury is a challenge in human health assessments. A previous study demonstrated that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), one of the common underlying disease states, enhances tetrachloroethylene (PERC)-associated hepatotoxicity in mice. Interestingly, NAFLD resulted in a decrease in metabolism of PERC to nephrotoxic glutathione conjugates; we therefore hypothesized that NAFLD would protect against PERC-associated nephrotoxicity. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat (LFD), high-fat (31% fat, HFD), or high-fat methionine/choline/folate-deficient (31% fat, MCD) diets. After 8 weeks mice were administered either a single dose of PERC (300 mg/kg i.g.) and euthanized at 1-36 h post dose, or five daily doses of PERC (300 mg/kg/d i.g.) and euthanized 4 h after last dose. Relative to LFD-fed mice, HFD- or MCD-fed mice exhibited decreased PERC concentrations and increased trichloroacetate (TCA) in kidneys. S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)glutathione (TCVG), S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine (TCVC), and N-acetyl-S-(1,2,2,-trichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine (NAcTCVC) were also significantly lower in kidney and urine of HFD- or MCD-fed mice compared with LFD-fed mice. Despite differences in levels of nephrotoxic PERC metabolites in kidney, LFD- and MCD-fed mice demonstrated similar degree of nephrotoxicity. However, HFD-fed mice were less sensitive to PERC-induced nephrotoxicity. Thus, whereas both MCD- and HFD-induced fatty liver reduced the delivered dose of nephrotoxic PERC metabolites to the kidney, only HFD was protective against PERC-induced nephrotoxicity, possibly due to greater toxicodynamic sensitivity induced by methyl and choline deficiency. These results therefore demonstrate that pre-existing disease conditions can lead to a complex interplay of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic changes that modulate susceptibility to the toxicity of xenobiotics.
author list (cited authors)
Cichocki, J. A., Luo, Y., Furuya, S., Venkatratnam, A., Konganti, K., Chiu, W. A., ... Rusyn, I.