Teachers' Pedagogical Differences During ESL Block Among Bilingual and English-Immersion Kindergarten Classrooms in a Randomized Trial Study Academic Article uri icon


  • Using a low-inference observational instrument, the authors empirically described and compared pedagogical behaviors in bilingual and structured English-immersion programs serving Spanish-speaking English language learners in a large urban school district in Southeast Texas. The two programs included both intervention/control of each type during ESL block. The 9,508 observations were collected four times during the kindergarten year from 54 classrooms in 23 schools. Findings indicated that within the English-immersion program, teachers in experimental, as opposed to control, classrooms allocated more instructional time (p < 0.01) in (a) cognitive areas and expressive-language-related tasks in English, (b) teacher-ask/student-answer types of activities, (c) academic visual scaffolding and leveled questions, and (d) encouraging student interactions. Similar differences were found in teachers between experimental and control bilingual classrooms. © 2009 by the National Association for Bilingual Education.

author list (cited authors)

  • Lara-Alecio, R., Tong, F., Irby, B. J., & Mathes, P.

citation count

  • 24

publication date

  • June 2009