Teachers' Pedagogical Differences During ESL Block Among Bilingual and English-Immersion Kindergarten Classrooms in a Randomized Trial Study Academic Article uri icon


  • Using a low-inference observational instrument, the authors empirically described and compared pedagogical behaviors in bilingual and structured English-immersion programs serving Spanish-speaking English language learners in a large urban school district in Southeast Texas. The two programs included both intervention/control of each type during ESL block. The 9,508 observations were collected four times during the kindergarten year from 54 classrooms in 23 schools. Findings indicated that within the English-immersion program, teachers in experimental, as opposed to control, classrooms allocated more instructional time (p < 0.01) in (a) cognitive areas and expressive-language-related tasks in English, (b) teacher-ask/student-answer types of activities, (c) academic visual scaffolding and leveled questions, and (d) encouraging student interactions. Similar differences were found in teachers between experimental and control bilingual classrooms. 2009 by the National Association for Bilingual Education.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Lara-Alecio, R., Tong, F., Irby, B. J., & Mathes, P.

citation count

  • 29

complete list of authors

  • Lara-Alecio, Rafael||Tong, Fuhui||Irby, Beverly J||Mathes, Patricia

publication date

  • June 2009