Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is a Susceptibility Factor for Perchloroethylene-Induced Liver Effects in Mice.
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent pathological liver condition in developed countries. NAFLD results in severe alterations in liver function, including xenobiotic metabolism. Perchloroethylene (PERC) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, a known hepatotoxicant in rodents, and a probable human carcinogen. It is known that PERC disposition and metabolism are affected by NAFLD in mice; here, we examined how NAFLD changes PERC-associated liver effects. Male C57Bl6/J mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD), or methionine/folate/choline-deficient diet (MCD) to model a healthy liver, or mild and severe forms of NAFLD, respectively. After 8 weeks on diets, mice were orally administered PERC (300 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (5% aqueous Alkamuls-EL620) for 5 days. PERC-induced liver effects were exacerbated in both NAFLD groups. PERC exposure was associated with up-regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic, lipid, and glutathione metabolism, and down-regulation of the complement and coagulation cascades, regardless of the diet. Interestingly, HFD-fed mice, not MCD-fed mice, were generally more sensitive to PERC-induced liver effects. This was indicated by histopathology and transcriptional responses, where induction of genes associated with cell cycle and inflammation were prominent. Liver effects positively correlated with diet-specific differences in liver concentrations of PERC. We conclude that NAFLD alters the toxicodynamics of PERC and that NAFLD is a susceptibility factor that should be considered in future risk management decisions for PERC and other chlorinated solvents.
author list (cited authors)
Cichocki, J. A., Furuya, S., Luo, Y., Iwata, Y., Konganti, K., Chiu, W. A., ... Rusyn, I.