Applied Tests of Design SkillsPart 1: Divergent Thinking Academic Article uri icon


  • A number of cognitive skills relevant to conceptual design were identified previously. They include divergent thinking (DT), visual thinking (VT), spatial reasoning (SR), qualitative reasoning (QR), and problem formulation (PF). A battery of standardized tests is being developed for these design skills. This paper focuses only on the divergent thinking test. This particular test has been given to over 500 engineering students and a smaller number of practicing engineers. It is designed to evaluate four direct measures (fluency, flexibility, originality, and quality) and four indirect measures (abstractability, afixability, detailability, and decomplexability). The eight questions on the test overlap in some measures and the responses can be used to evaluate several measures independently (e.g., fluency and originality can be evaluated separately from the same idea set). The data on the twenty-three measured variables were factor analyzed using both exploratory and confirmatory procedures. A four-factor solution with correlated (oblique) factors was deemed the best available solution after examining solutions with more factors. The indirect measures did not appear to correlate strongly either among themselves or with the other direct measures. The four-factor structure was then taken into a confirmatory factor analytic procedure that adjusted for the missing data. It was found to provide a reasonable fit. Estimated correlations among the four factors (F) ranged from a high of 0.32 for F1 and F2 to a low of 0.06 for F3 and F4. All factor loadings were statistically significant.

published proceedings

  • Journal of Mechanical Design

author list (cited authors)

  • Shah, J. J., Millsap, R. E., Woodward, J., & Smith, S. M.

complete list of authors

  • Shah, Jami J||Millsap, Roger E||Woodward, Jay||Smith, SM

publication date

  • January 1, 2012 11:11 AM