Chronic temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with severely declined dentate neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.
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While it is clear that acute hippocampal injury or status epilepticus increases the production of new neurons in the adult dentate gyrus (DG), the effects of chronic epilepsy on dentate neurogenesis are unknown. We hypothesize that epileptogenic changes and spontaneous recurrent motor seizures (SRMS) that ensue after hippocampal injury or status epilepticus considerably decrease dentate neurogenesis. We addressed this issue by quantifying the number of cells that are positive for doublecortin (DCX, a marker of new neurons) in the DG of adult F344 rats at 16 days and 5 months after an intracerebroventricular kainic acid (ICV KA) administration or after graded intraperitoneal KA (IP KA) injections, models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). At early post-KA administration, the injured hippocampus exhibited increased dentate neurogenesis in both models. Conversely, at 5 months post-KA administration, the chronically epileptic hippocampus demonstrated severely declined neurogenesis, which was associated with considerable SRMS in both KA models. Additionally, stem/progenitor cell proliferation factors, FGF-2 and IGF-1, were decreased in the chronically epileptic hippocampus. Interestingly, the overall decrease in neurogenesis and the extent of SRMS were greater in rats receiving IP KA than rats receiving ICV KA, suggesting that the extent of neurogenesis during chronic TLE exhibits an inverse relationship with SRMS. These results provide novel evidence that chronic TLE is associated with extremely declined dentate neurogenesis. As fraction of newly born neurons become GABA-ergic interneurons, declined neurogenesis may contribute to the increased seizure-susceptibility of the DG in chronic TLE. Likewise, the hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits observed in chronic TLE could be linked at least partially to the declined neurogenesis.
author list (cited authors)
Hattiangady, B., Rao, M. S., & Shetty, A. K
complete list of authors
Hattiangady, Bharathi||Rao, Muddanna S||Shetty, Ashok K