A Conceptual Model of Organizations as Learning-Performance Systems: Integrative Review of Lean Implementation Literature Academic Article uri icon


  • This article identifies factors that influence Lean implementation that has as its outcome a conceptual model based on an integrative review of literature. The conceptual model uncovers the complexity of Lean implementation. Further, the model highlights the importance of recognizing human resource development (HRD) related issues and challenges for managing change during Lean implementation. The conceptual model enhances our understanding and interpretation of the dynamic aspects that learning and performance bring to the organization. The model is an important starting point for developing a better general understanding of organizations as learning-performance systems. The discussion addresses how learning and performance may be integrated in future Lean implementation efforts by leveraging the intersection of HRD and Lean. The article concludes with implications of the model for HRD theory, research, and practice.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Alagaraja, M.

citation count

  • 27

complete list of authors

  • Alagaraja, Meera

publication date

  • June 2014