SEMI-ANALYTICAL FORMULATION FOR HEAT TRANSFER FROM STRUCTURES WITH EMBEDDED TUBES.
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Many hydronic heating systems consist of tubes or pipes embedded in masonry materials. A semi-analytical formula was developed for computing the heat output leaving the masonry surface through combined radiation and convection. This formula was developed by solving several extreme cases for which analytical solutions exist and then combining these solutions so that the combined analytical solution, along with a correction term, accurately describes the heat transfer characteristics of structures with embedded tubes. This formulation required the introduction of several dimensionless parameters: Bi, accounting for convection effects; Pi, accounting for radiation effects; Ti, a sink source ratio; L, a dimensionless tube separation length; M, a dimensionless panel thickness; and finally, Qi, a dimensionless heat flux leaving the structure.
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