Detailed film cooling effectiveness distributions are measured on the leading edge of a rotating gas turbine blade with two rows (pressure-side row and suction-side row from the stagnation line) of holes aligned to the radial axis using the pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique. Film cooling effectiveness distributions are obtained by comparing the difference of the measured oxygen concentration distributions with air and nitrogen as film cooling gas respectively and by applying the mass transfer analogy. Measurements are conducted on the first-stage rotor blade of a three-stage axial turbine at 2400rpm (positive off-design), 2550rpm (design), and 3000rpm (negative off-design), respectively. The effect of three blowing ratios is also studied. The blade Reynolds number based on the axial chord length and the exit velocity is 200,000 and the total to exit pressure ratio was 1.12 for the first-stage rotor blade. The corresponding rotor blade inlet and outlet Mach numbers are 0.1 and 0.3, respectively. The film cooling effectiveness distributions are presented along with discussions on the influence of rotational speed (off design incidence angle), blowing ratio, and upstream nozzle wakes around the leading edge region. Results show that rotation has a significant impact on the leading edge film cooling distributions with the average film cooling effectiveness in the leading edge region decreasing with an increase in the rotational speed (negative incidence angle).