Hypertensive Stimuli Indirectly Stimulate Lymphangiogenesis through Immune Cell Secreted Factors.
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(1) Background: Renal immune cells and lymphatic vessel (LV) density have been reported previously to be increased in multiple mouse models of hypertension (HTN). However, whether interstitial levels of HTN stimuli such as angiotensin II, salt, or asymmetric dimethylarginine have a direct or indirect effect on lymphangiogenesis is unknown. We hypothesized that these 3 HTN stimuli directly increase lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) proliferation, LEC 3-D matrix invasion and vessel formation, and sprouting of mouse mesometrial LVs. (2) Methods: Human LECs (hLECs) and mouse LECs (mLECs) were treated with HTN stimuli while explanted mouse mesometrial LVs were treated with either the same HTN stimuli or with HTN stimuli-conditioned media. Conditioned media was prepared by treating murine splenocytes with HTN stimuli. (3) Results: HTN stimuli had no direct effect on hLEC or mLEC proliferation. Treatment of hLECs with HTN stimuli increased the number of lumen-forming structures and invasion distance (both p < 0.05) in the 3-D matrix but decreased the average lumen diameter and the number of cells per invading structure (both p < 0.05). Conditioned media from HTN-stimuli-treated splenocytes significantly attenuated the decrease in sprout number (aside from salt) and sprout length of mouse mesometrial LVs that is found in the HTN stimuli alone. (4) Conclusions: These data indicate that HTN stimuli indirectly prevent a decrease in lymphangiogenesis through secreted factors from HTN-stimuli-treated immune cells.
author list (cited authors)
Wilcox, B. K., Henley, M. R., Navaneethabalakrishnan, S., Martinez, K. A., Pournouri, A., Goodlett, B. L., ... Mitchell, B. M.
complete list of authors
Wilcox, Brooke K||Henley, Marissa R||Navaneethabalakrishnan, Shobana||Martinez, Karina A||Pournouri, Anil||Goodlett, Bethany L||Lopez, Alexandra H||Allbee, Miranda L||Pickup, Emma J||Bayless, Kayla J||Chakraborty, Sanjukta||Mitchell, Brett M