Hypertension and reproductive dysfunction: a possible role of inflammation and inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis in gonads.
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Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases that leads to end organ damage especially affecting the heart, kidney, brain, and eyes. Numerous studies have evaluated the association between hypertension and impaired sexual health, in both men and women. The detrimental effects of hypertension in men includes erectile dysfunction, decrease in semen volume, sperm count and motility, and abnormal sperm morphology. Similarly, hypertensive females exhibit decreased vaginal lubrication, reduced orgasm, and several complications in pregnancy leading to fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The adverse effect of hypertension on male and female fertility is attributed to hormonal imbalance and changes in the gonadal vasculature. However, mechanistic studies investigating the impact of hypertension on gonads in more detail on a molecular basis remain scarce. Hence, the aim of the current review is to address and summarize the effects of hypertension on reproductive health, and highlight the importance of research on the effects of hypertension on gonadal inflammation and lymphatics.
author list (cited authors)
Navaneethabalakrishnan, S., Goodlett, B. L., Lopez, A. H., Rutkowski, J. M., & Mitchell, B. M.
complete list of authors
Navaneethabalakrishnan, Shobana||Goodlett, Bethany L||Lopez, Alexandra H||Rutkowski, Joseph M||Mitchell, Brett M