Complexity of the Neurospora crassa circadian clock system: multiple loops and oscillators.
Additional Document Info
Organisms from bacteria to humans use a circadian clock to control daily biochemical, physiological, and behavioral rhythms. We review evidence from Neurospora crassa that suggests that the circadian clock is organized as a network of genes and proteins that form coupled evening- and morning-specific oscillatory loops that can function autonomously, respond differently to environmental inputs, and regulate phase-specific outputs. There is also evidence for coupled morning and evening oscillator loops in plants, insects, and mammals, suggesting conservation of clock organization. From a systems perspective, fungi provide a powerful model organism for investigating oscillator complexity, communication between oscillators, and addressing reasons why the system has evolved to be so complex.