The association between process and program advertising standardization: An illustration of U.S. multinationals operating in India
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For well over forty years, academics have debated the effectiveness of the standardization/adaptation of international advertising, with practitioners beginning four decades earlier. As the debate has progressed, a critical distinction in the literature has developed related to this issue, that of process and program standardization. In this study, we examine the association of process and program standardization, inclusive of consumer market and environmental similarity, within a sample of U.S. multinationals operating in India. Results indicate a positive association between process and program advertising standardization of U.S. multinationals operating in India. Implications for academics and practitioners are presented. © 2002.
Advances in International Marketing
author list (cited authors)
Chandra, A., Griffith, D. A., & Ryans, J. K.
complete list of authors
Chandra, Aruna||Griffith, David A||Ryans, John K