School Punishment and Education: Racial/Ethnic Disparities With Grade Retention and the Role of Urbanicity Academic Article uri icon


  • There are racial/ethnic disparities associated with school punishment practices and academic progress. In addition, research suggests that urban schools have stricter school punishment practices and higher grade retention rates. What remains unknown, however, is the relationship between race/ethnicity, school punishment practices, and retention rates across urban, rural, and suburban schools. Thus, this study draws from the Texas Education Agencys Public Education Information Management System and Critical Race Theory to investigate if there is link between school punishment practices and academic progress, as well as establishing if there are racial/ethnic disparities in urban, rural, and suburban contexts.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 0.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Peguero, A. A., Varela, K. S., Marchbanks, M., Blake, J., & Eason, J. M.

citation count

  • 12

complete list of authors

  • Peguero, Anthony A||Varela, Kay S||Marchbanks, Miner P Trey III||Blake, Jamilia||Eason, John M

publication date

  • February 2021