Chlorophyllin chemoprevention in trout initiated by aflatoxin B(1) bath treatment: An evaluation of reduced bioavailability vs. target organ protective mechanisms.
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Chlorophyllin (CHL) is known to inhibit DNA adduction and hepatocarcinogenesis in trout when administered at doses up to 4000 ppm in the diet with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). The principal protective mechanism is believed to involve CHL:AFB(1) complex formation, which may reduce systemic carcinogen absorption. However, mechanisms operative within the target organ in situ have not been ruled out. The present study used alternative CHL and AFB(1) exposures as well as hepatic metabolism studies to distinguish these mechanisms. Duplicate lots of 150 rainbow trout each were initiated by brief water bath exposure to 0.1 ppm AFB(1), with or without 500 ppm CHL in the water. The addition of 500 ppm CHL to the water bath, under conditions where AFB(1) is calculated to be >99% sequestered as the CHL:AFB(1) complex, reduced hepatic AFB(1)-DNA adduction by 95% and reduced hepatocarcinogenesis from 20.5% to 2%, compared with exposure to AFB(1) alone. Inclusion of 500 ppm CHL in the water bath also significantly reduced total body burden and hepatic levels of AFB(1) as well as AFB(2), a structural analogue of AFB(1) unable to directly form the 8,9-epoxide proximate electrophile but equally capable of complexing with CHL. By contrast, internal target organ CHL loading by pretreatment of trout with 4000 ppm dietary CHL for 7 days prior to (and 2 days following) AFB(1) waterbath exposure had no effect on AFB(1)-DNA adduction or tumorigenicity. Dietary CHL up to 8000 ppm had no effect on hepatic CYP2K1, CYP1A, glutathione transferase, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, or, with one exception, the relative ratios among hepatic AFB(1) metabolites in vivo. These results support the hypothesis that CHL:AFB(1) complex formation and reduced systemic AFB(1) bioavailability is a principal mechanism for CHL chemoprevention in this model and that in situ target organ inhibitory mechanisms are relatively insignificant.
author list (cited authors)
Breinholt, V., Arbogast, D., Loveland, P., Pereira, C., Dashwood, R., Hendricks, J., & Bailey, G.
complete list of authors
Breinholt, V||Arbogast, D||Loveland, P||Pereira, C||Dashwood, R||Hendricks, J||Bailey, G