A flexible heterogeneous multi-core architecture
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Multi-core processors naturally exploit thread-level parallelism (TLP). However, extracting instruction-level parallelism (ILP) from individual applications or threads is still a challenge as application mixes in this environment are nonuniform. Thus, multi-core processors should be flexible enough to provide high throughput for uniform parallel applications as well as high performance for more general workloads. Heterogeneous architectures are a first step in this direction, but partitioning remains static and only roughly fits application requirements. This paper proposes the Flexible Heterogeneous MultiCore processor (FMC), the first dynamic heterogeneous multi-core architecture capable of reconfiguring itself to fit application requirements without programmer intervention. The basic building block of this microarchitecture is a scalable, variable-size window microarchitecture that exploits the concept of Execution Locality to provide large-window capabilities. This allows to overcome the memory wall for applications with high memory-level parallelism (MLP). The microarchitecture contains a set of small and fast cache processors that execute high locality code and a network of small in-order memory engines that together exploit low locality code. Single-threaded applications can use the entire network of cores while multi-threaded applications can efficiently share the resources. The sizing of critical structures remains small enough to handle current power envelopes. In single-threaded mode this processor is able to out-perform previous state-of-the-art high-performance processor research by 12% on SpecFP. We show how in a quad-threaded/quad-core environment the processor outperforms a statically allocated configuration in both throughput and harmonic mean, two commonly used metrics to evaluate SMT performance, by around 2-4%. This is achieved while using a very simple sharing algorithm. © 2007 IEEE.
author list (cited authors)
Pericás, M., Cristal, A., Cazorla, F. J., González, R., Jiménez, D. A., & Valero, M.