Classroom Process Differences in Inner-City Elementary Schools Academic Article uri icon


  • Prior school effectiveness research was extended in this study by an examination of classroom processes in urban elementary schools that have been identified as effective/efficient (E/E) and ineffective/inefficient (I/I), based on both data envelopment analyses (DEA) (Anderson & Walberg, 1994) and multiple-regression analyses. Achievement test scores and school demographic data were used initially to determine the efficiency and effectiveness ratings of 167 elementary schools from a large urban school district in the south central region of the United States. Four schools were randomly selected from the population of I/I schools. Systematic classroom observation and classroom learning environment measures were collected from each of these schools. The results indicated several classroom process differences between these E/E and I/I urban schools. In the I/I schools, for example, students were observed interacting with their teacher only about 47% of the time and there were no classroom interactions over 40% of the time. In the E/E schools, students were observed interacting with their teachers about 70% of the time, and there were no interactions only about 21% of the time. 1997 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

published proceedings

  • The Journal of Educational Research

author list (cited authors)

  • Waxman, H. C., Huang, S., Anderson, L., & Weinstein, T.

citation count

  • 27

complete list of authors

  • Waxman, Hersholt C||Huang, Shwu-Yong L||Anderson, Lascelle||Weinstein, Thomas

publication date

  • September 1997