DMP1 C-terminal mutant mice recapture the human ARHR tooth phenotype.
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DMP1 mutations in autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR) patients and mice lacking Dmp1 display an overlapping pathophysiology, such as hypophosphatemia. However, subtle differences exist between the mouse model and human ARHR patients. These differences could be due to a species specificity of human versus mouse, or it may be that the mutant DMP1 in humans maintains partial function of DMP1. In this study we report a deformed tooth phenotype in a human DMP1 deletion mutation case. Unexpectedly, the deletion of nucleotides 1484 to 1490 (c.1484_1490delCTATCAC, delMut, resulting in replacement of the last 18 residues with 33 random amino acids) showed a severe dentin and enamel defect similar to a dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) III-like phenotype. To address the molecular mechanism behind this phenotype, we generated delMut transgenic mice with the endogenous Dmp1 gene removed. These mutant mice did not recapture the abnormal phenotype observed in the human patient but displayed a mild rachitic tooth phenotype in comparison with that in the Dmp1-null mice, suggesting that the DI III-like phenotype may be due to an as-yet-undetermined acquired gene modifier. The mechanism studies showed that the mutant fragment maintains partial function of DMP1 such as stimulating MAP kinase signaling in vitro. Last, the in vitro and in vivo data support a role of odontoblasts in the control of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) regulation during early postnatal development, although this regulation on Pi homeostasis is likely limited.