Broadening the understanding of social presence: Implications and contributions to the mediated communication and online education Academic Article uri icon


  • 2016 Elsevier Ltd Social presence is a concept found to facilitate effective learning experiences in online education. However, there is limited understanding of the theoretical notion in the literature. In an attempt to broaden the understanding of social presence, the current investigation examined two issues: a) distinction between social presence and interactivity, and b) multidimensional nature of social presence and its predictive validity for online learning experiences. Data were collected from 210 undergraduate students using an online survey. Findings indicate that social presence and interactivity are related but distinct constructs. Both psychological involvement and co-presence appear to be under the concept of social presence. The data indicate strong predictive validity of social presence for online learning experiences when it is measured with both dimensions of psychological involvement and co-presence.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Kim, J., Song, H., & Luo, W.

citation count

  • 43

complete list of authors

  • Kim, Jihyun||Song, Hayeon||Luo, Wen

publication date

  • January 2016