Reduced-Frequency Concurrent and Terminal Feedback: A Test of the Guidance Hypothesis
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In 2 experiments, the authors manipulated the frequency of concurrent feedback to discern the effects on learning. In each experiment, participants (N = 48, Experiment 1; N = 36, Experiment 2) attempted to reproduce a criterion force-production waveform (5 s in duration) presented on the computer monitor. Consistent with the guidance hypothesis, the results of Experiment 1 indicated very strong guiding effects of concurrent feedback and strong dependence on the feedback, as indicated by participants' extremely poor performance upon feedback withdrawal in retention. As predicted by the guidance hypothesis, dependence on the feedback was reduced as a result of reducing the frequency of the concurrent feedback. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that one can enhance learning by providing concurrent and terminal feedback on 1 trial, with no feedback on the subsequent trial. In that way, the strong guiding effects of concurrent feedback could be realized and the beneficial effects of terminal feedback could also be achieved.
author list (cited authors)
Park, J., Shea, C. H., & Wright, D. L.