Achievement goals and perceived motivational climate are two important constructs in achievement goal theory, and they play critical roles in student motivation and behavior Traditionally, these two constructs have been examined separately. The present study examined relationships between the two constructs and students' self-reported mastery behaviors as well as age-related differences. Three hundred eight students in 4th, 8th, and 11th grades completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, perceived motivational climate, and perceptions of their mastery behaviors. Results indicated that achievement goals and perceived motivational climate were related to students' self-reported mastery behaviors. However, the relations varied depending on the students' ages. The older students, compared to the younger ones, appeared to be inclined more toward ego orientation and the ego-involved climate. A multiple achievement goals perspective is recommended for future research on relationships among achievement goals, perceived motivational climate and achievement-related cognitions, and behaviors in physical education.