Longitudinal Goal Patterns and Their Effects on Students' Motivation in Running Programs Academic Article uri icon


  • In this study the authors examined longitudinal achievement goal patterns and their effects on students' motivation and performance from the 5th to 6th grade in physical education running programs. In their 5th and 6th grade, 412 participants completed questionnaires assessing their task and ego orientations, expectancy beliefs, task values, and intentions for future participation in running. They also completed a timed 1-mile run. Results revealed low task/low ego, low task/high ego, high task/low ego, and high task/high ego remained stable as goal patterns across the 5th and 6th grade. The majority of students moved to more motivationally adaptive goal patterns over time. Copyright Taylor &Francis Group, LLC.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Xiang, P., Liu, Y., McBride, R. E., & Bruene, A.

citation count

  • 6

complete list of authors

  • Xiang, Ping||Liu, Yuanlong||McBride, Ron E||Bruene, April

publication date

  • January 2011