Fast and flexible buffer trees that navigate the physical layout environment Conference Paper uri icon


  • Buffer insertion is an increasingly critical optimization for achieving timing closure, and the number of buffers required increases significantly with technology migration. It is imperative for an automated buffer insertion algorithm to be able to efficiently optimize tens of thousands of nets. One must also be able to effectively navigate the existing layout, including handling large blockages, blockages with holes specifically for buffers, specially allocated buffer blocks, placement porosity, and routing congestion. The algorithm must also be flexible enough to know when to use and when not to use expensive layout resources. Although several previous works have addressed buffer insertion in the presence of blockages, this is the first to present a complete solution that can manage the physical layout environment.

published proceedings

  • Proceedings - Design Automation Conference

author list (cited authors)

  • Alpert, C. J., Hrkic, M., Hu, J., & Quay, S. T.

complete list of authors

  • Alpert, CJ||Hrkic, M||Hu, J||Quay, ST

publication date

  • September 2004