Low Temperature Heat Release of Palm and Soy Biodiesel in Late Injection Low Temperature Combustion Academic Article uri icon


  • 2014 SAE International. The first stage of ignition in saturated hydrocarbon fuels is characterized as low temperature heat release (LTHR) or cool flame combustion. LTHR takes place as a series of isomerization reactions at temperatures from 600K to 900K, and is often detectable in HCCI, rapid compression machines, and early injection low temperature combustion (LTC). The experimental investigation presented attempts to determine the behavior of LTHR in late injection low temperature combustion in a medium duty diesel as fuel varies and the influence of such behavior on LTC torque and emissions. Two experiments were performed: the first studies two operating modes (conventional combustion with 8 after top dead center injection timing and 0% EGR and low temperature combustion with 0 after top dead center injection timing and nominally 42% EGR level) with standard petroleum diesel, palm biodiesel, and soy biodiesel; the second studies a sweep of EGR level from 0% to nominally 45% with petroleum diesel and palm biodiesel with a constant injection timing of 0 after top dead center. LTHR is apparent in all fuels' rates of heat release profiles at the LTC operating condition. Diesel fuel displayed a longer and more intense LTHR phase. Lower amounts of LTHR in the palm biodiesel causes less sensitivity to EGR, less instability, and produces better torque and emission characteristics.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Tompkins, B. T., Song, H., & Jacobs, T. J.

citation count

  • 8

complete list of authors

  • Tompkins, Brandon T||Song, Hoseok||Jacobs, Timothy J

publication date

  • January 2014