Covalent layer-by-layer assembly-an effective, forgiving way to construct functional robust ultrathin films and nanocomposites Academic Article uri icon


  • Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is a versatile way to construct thin film nanocomposites and to modify surfaces. This technology is broadly useful because it is a simple and forgiving synthetic method. Most commonly, this approach to fabrication of an interface involves multilayer ionic assembly of polyelectrolytes. While ionic grafts are easy to prepare, ionic assemblies cannot be used in all applications. This highlight focuses on an alternative approach that uses covalent bonds to form multilayer grafts. Selected examples of this chemistry showing the scope of this methodology in the formation of ultrathin film nanocomposites and its potential are discussed below. 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Bergbreiter, D. E., & Liao, K.

citation count

  • 105

complete list of authors

  • Bergbreiter, David E||Liao, Kang-Shyang

publication date

  • January 2009