An Examination of Factors Contributing to a Reduction in Subgroup Differences on a Constructed-Response Paper-and-Pencil Test of Scholastic Achievement Conference Paper uri icon


  • The authors investigated subgroup differences on a multiple-choice and constructed-response test of scholastic achievement in a sample of 197 African American and 258 White test takers. Although both groups had lower mean scores on the constructed-response test, the results showed a 39% reduction in subgroup differences compared with the multiple-choice test. The results demonstrate that the lower subgroup differences were explained by more favorable test perceptions for African Americans on the constructed-response test. In addition, the two test formats displayed comparable levels of criterion-related validity. The results suggest that the constructed-response test format may be a viable alternative to the traditional multiple-choice test format in efforts to simultaneously use valid predictors of performance and minimize subgroup differences in high-stakes testing.

altmetric score

  • 1

author list (cited authors)

  • Edwards, B. D., & Arthur, W.

citation count

  • 31

publication date

  • May 2007