n111654SE Academic Article uri icon


  • A shape memory alloy (SMA) with a composition of Ni60Ti 40 (wt%) was chosen for the fabrication of active beam elements intended for use as cyclic actuators and incorporated into a morphing aerospace structure. The active structure is a variable-geometry chevron (VGC) designed to reduce jet engine noise in the take-off flight regime while maintaining efficiency in the cruise regime. This two-part work addresses the training, characterization and derived material properties of the new nickel-rich composition, the assessment of the actuation properties of the active beam actuator and the accurate analysis of the VGC and its subcomponents using a model calibrated from the material characterization. The characterization performed in part I of this work was intended to provide quantitative information used to predict the response of SMA beam actuators of the same composition and with the same heat treatment history. Material in the form of plates was received and ASTM standard tensile testing coupons were fabricated and tested. To fully characterize the material response as an actuator, various thermomechanical experiments were performed. Properties such as actuation strain and transformation temperatures as a function of applied stress were of primary interest. Results from differential scanning calorimetry, monotonic tensile loading and constant stress thermal loading for the as-received, untrained material are first presented. These show lower transformation temperatures, higher elastic stiffnesses (60-90GPa) and lower recoverable transformation strains (1.5%) when compared to equiatomic NiTi (Nitinol). Stabilization (training) cycles were applied to the tensile specimens and characterization tests were repeated for the stable (trained) material. The effects of specimen training included the saturation of cyclically generated irrecoverable plastic strains and a broadening of the thermal transformation hysteresis. A set of final derived material properties for this stable material is provided. Finally, the actuation response of a structural beam component composed of the same material given the same thermomechanical processing conditions was assessed by applying a constant bias load and a variable bias load as thermal actuation cycles were imposed. 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

published proceedings

  • Smart Materials and Structures

author list (cited authors)

  • Hartl, D. J., Lagoudas, D. C., Calkins, F. T., & Mabe, J. H.

publication date

  • January 1, 2010 11:11 AM