Thermo-mechanical Response and Damping Behavior of Shape Memory Alloy–MAX Phase Composites Academic Article uri icon


  • NiTi/Ti3SiC2 interpenetrating composites that combine two unique material systems - a shape memory alloy (SMA) and a MAX phase - demonstrating two different pseudoelastic mechanisms, were processed using spark plasma sintering. The goal of mixing these two material systems was to enhance the damping behavior and thermo-mechanical response of the composite by combining two pseudoelastic mechanisms, i.e., reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation in SMA and reversible incipient kink band formation in MAX phase. Equal volume fractions of equiatomic NiTi and Ti 3SiC2 were used. Microstructural characterization was conducted using scanning electron microscopy to study the distribution of NiTi, Ti3SiC2, and remnant porosity in the composite. Thermo-mechanical testing in the form of thermal cycles under constant stress levels was performed in order to characterize shape memory behavior and thereby introducing residual stresses in the composites. Evolution of two-way shape memory effect was studied and related to the presence of residual stresses in the composites. Damping behavior, implying the energy dissipation per loading-unloading cycle under increasing compressive stresses, of pure NiTi, pure Ti3SiC2, as-sintered, and thermo-mechanically cycled (TC) NiTi/Ti3SiC2 composites, was investigated and compared to the literature data. In this study, the highest energy dissipation was observed for the TC composite followed by the as-sintered (AS) composite, pure NiTi, and pure Ti3SiC2 when compared at the same applied stress levels. Both the AS and TC composites showed higher damping up to 200 MPa stress than any of the metal - MAX phase composites reported in the literature to date. The ability to enhance the performance of the composite by controlling the thermo-mechanical loading paths was further discussed. © 2014 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

author list (cited authors)

  • Kothalkar, A. D., Benitez, R., Hu, L., Radovic, M., & Karaman, I.

citation count

  • 17

publication date

  • February 2014