Paknejad, Amir S (2009-08). Development of a Well Intervention Toolkit to Analyze Initial Wellbore Conditions and Evaluate Injection Pressures, Flow Path, Well Kill, and Plugging Procedures. Doctoral Dissertation.
Every year, many wells are subject to well intervention operations for a variety of different reasons, such as Plug and Abandon (P&A) operations or well control situations. Wells that are not properly plugged, in addition becoming an inherent blowout threat, can act as a preferential pathway for surface contaminants to reach and impair ground water quality, and could cause injury to livestock, wildlife, or humans. Hence, federal code (or state code if in state waters) states that the wells must be plugged according to regulations. If attempts with a surface intervention operation fail, a relief type subsurface intervention project is deemed appropriate. A relief well type of intersection into each target wellbore will create a hydraulic flow path suitable for plugging operations. The plugging operation will require the placement of permanent plugging fluids into the Target Well (TW) to meet Mineral Management Services (MMS), or other regulatory agency, approved plugging criteria. Evidently, there is a need to design a method to insure that the scenarios are accurately defined, analyzed and the results can be effectively implemented to complete the plug and abandonment operations. A software package, coupled with the skill of a hydraulic modeling specialist, could provide final resolution to and better understanding of the problem. However, considering uncertainties in some input information, there is a need to develop a multi-purpose package which enables the user to manipulate dynamically a wide range of input data in order to obtain the best fit. Therefore, the decision was made to develop a software package specifically built and designed to address the common problems encountered during well intervention projects. The well intervention toolkit will be used to investigate the plugging and abandonment scenarios. The well intervention toolkit not only provides the critical input parameters to other commercial software but would also be a means to analyze and simulate the well intervention hydraulics