Regulators of Cholangiocyte Proliferation.
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Cholangiocytes, a small population of cells within the normal liver, have been the focus of a significant amount of research over the past two decades because of their involvement in cholangiopathies such as primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cholangitis. This article summarizes landmark studies in the field of cholangiocyte physiology and aims to provide an updated review of biliary pathogenesis. The historical approach of rodent extrahepatic bile duct ligation and the relatively recent utilization of transgenic mice have led to significant discoveries in cholangiocyte pathophysiology. Cholangiocyte physiology is a complex system based on heterogeneity within the biliary tree and a number of signaling pathways that serve to regulate bile composition. Studies have expanded the list of neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and hormones that have been shown to be key regulators of proliferation and biliary damage. The peptide histamine and hormones, such as melatonin and angiotensin, angiotensin, as well as numerous sex hormones, have been implicated in cholangiocyte proliferation during cholestasis. Numerous pathways promote cholangiocyte proliferation during cholestasis, and there is growing evidence to suggest that cholangiocyte proliferation may promote hepatic fibrosis. These pathways may represent significant therapeutic potential for a subset of cholestatic liver diseases that currently lack effective therapies.
author list (cited authors)
Hall, C., Sato, K., Wu, N., Zhou, T., Kyritsi, K., Meng, F., Glaser, S., & Alpini, G
complete list of authors
Hall, Chad||Sato, Keisaku||Wu, Nan||Zhou, Tianhao||Kyritsi, Konstantina||Meng, Fanyin||Glaser, Shannon||Alpini, Gianfranco