FIA/MS analysis of temporally ozonated benzo[a]pyrene and pyrene and their reaction products: inhibition of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication.
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In this study, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and pyrene, were subjected to temporal ozonation. The products from ozonation of 5 mg l(-1) BaP and 5 mg l(-1) pyrene, for varying time intervals (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 20, and 30 min) were tested for their effects on gap junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC) in Clone 9 rat liver cells. Additionally, the ozonation products were also analyzed by flow injection analysis/mass spectrometry (FIA/MS) and the results were compared with the toxicity observed in the GJIC assay. Treatment of the Clone 9 cells with 5 mg l(-1) of ozonated BaP products resulted in a decrease in GJIC that was inversely proportional to the length of ozonation. The products from 1 min of ozonation resulted in a 92% decrease in the rate of GJIC, but with >5 min ozonation, the products did not suppress GJIC. In contrast, pyrene (0.5 mg l(-1)) required >10 min of ozonation to alleviate its effects on GJIC. FIA/MS, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), demonstrated products with higher molecular weights (MW) than their corresponding parent compounds, BaP (MW 252) and pyrene (MW 202). Ozonation of pyrene formed significantly fewer products than BaP. More importantly, pyrene ozonation products were constant from 1 to 10 min, while BaP ozonation products seemed to vary between time intervals. With the longer ozonation times (20 and 30 min), BaP and pyrene formed similar products (m/z peaks 157, 111, and 96). The suppression of GJIC by ozonated products seemed to correlate with oxidation of the aromatic ring framework. Further oxidation (longer ozonation times) to lower MW products correlated with restoration of normal GJIC.