Endothelin inhibits cholangiocarcinoma growth by a decrease in the vascular endothelial growth factor expression.
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BACKGROUND: Endothelins (ET-1, ET-2, ET-3) are peptides with vasoactive properties interacting with ET(A) and ET(B) receptors. ET-1 inhibits secretin-stimulated ductal secretion (hallmark of cholangiocyte growth) of cholestatic rats by interaction with ET receptors. AIM: The aims of the studies were to evaluate (i) the effect of ET-1 on cholangiocarcinoma growth in Mz-ChA-1 cells and nude mice and (ii) whether ET-1 regulation of cholangiocarcinoma growth is associated with changes in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), VEGF-C, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and VEGFR-3. METHODS: We determined the expression of ET(A) and ET(B) receptors on normal and malignant (Mz-ChA-1) cholangiocytes and human cholangiocarcinoma tissue and the effect of ET-1 on the proliferation and expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-C (regulators of tumour angiogenesis) and its receptors, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3, in Mz-ChA-1 cells. In vivo, Mz-ChA-1 cells were injected into the flanks of athymic mice and injections of ET-1 or saline into the tumours were performed daily. The effect of ET-1 on tumour size, cell proliferation, apoptosis, collagen quantity and the expression of VEGF-A and VEGF-C and VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 were measured after 73 days. RESULTS: Higher expression of ET(A) and ET(B) was observed in malignant compared with normal cholangiocytes. ET-1 inhibited proliferation and VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 expression of Mz-ChA-1 cells. Chronic ET-1 treatment decreased tumour volume, tumour cell proliferation and VEGF-A and VEGF-C expression but increased apoptosis and collagen tissue deposition compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Modulation of VEGF-A and VEGF-C (by ET-1) may be important for managing cholangiocarcinoma growth.
author list (cited authors)
Fava, G., Demorrow, S., Gaudio, E., Franchitto, A., Onori, P., Carpino, G., ... Alpini, G
complete list of authors
Fava, Giammarco||Demorrow, Sharon||Gaudio, Eugenio||Franchitto, Antonio||Onori, Paolo||Carpino, Guido||Glaser, Shannon||Francis, Heather||Coufal, Monique||Marucci, Luca||Alvaro, Domenico||Marzioni, Marco||Horst, Trenton||Mancinelli, Romina||Benedetti, Antonio||Alpini, Gianfranco