Nambu identity and collective modes in superconductors and superfluid 3 He
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Collective modes manifest themselves in a variety of different physical systems ranging from superconductors to superfluid 3He. The collective modes are generated via the Higgs-Anderson mechanism that is based on the symmetry breaking double well potential. Recently, collective modes were explored in superconducting NbN and InO in the presence of a strong terahertz laser field. In both cases a single collective mode that oscillates with twice the frequency of the superconducting energy gap Δ was discovered. Superfluid 3He is the host for a whole variety of collective modes. In particular, in the superfluid 3He B-phase, two massive collective modes were found with masses √8/5 δ and √ 12/5 δ. We show that for both cases of the superconducting films and for the superfluid 3He B-phase, the collective modes satisfy the Nambu identity that relates the masses of different collective modes to the energy gap parameter Δ.
author list (cited authors)
Shchedrin, G., & Lee, D. M.