Exposure of environmental trace elements in prostate cancer patients: A multiple metal analysis. Academic Article uri icon


  • Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men. To elucidate the connection between trace elements (arsenic: As, cadmium: Cd, lead: Pb, chromium: Cr, and nickel: Ni) and the risk of PCa, we analyzed trace element levels in the serum, urine, and tissues of PCa patients, while also examining their smoking status. We correlated these levels with their smoking habits. Notably, levels of Cd (P0.05) and As (P0.01) were significantly higher in the tumor tissue than in adjacent tissues. No significant differences were observed in the levels of Pb, Cr and Ni. Additionally, urinary Cd levels in 70% and arsenic levels in 2.3% of the PCa cohort were markedly higher than the CDC-reported cutoff (Cd0.185g/L & As 100g/L). None displayed elevated levels of urinary Pb, Cr, and Ni. Conversely, in serum samples, the concentration of arsenic exceeded the CDC-determined limit (As 1.0g/L) in 31.69% of PCa patients. However, only 7.04% of patients had higher serum Cd levels than the CDC standard values (Cd0.315g/L), while all PCa patients exceeded the Cr CDC limit (Cr0.16g/L) and the Ni CDC limit (Ni0.2g/L). On the contrary, no significant differences were observed in serum Pb (Pb35.0g/L). Our findings establish a positive link between Cd and arsenic tissue concentrations and the risk of PCa. Subsequent studies are essential to determine whether elevated trace element levels pose a risk for the development of prostate carcinogenesis. Interestingly, among the PCa cohort comprising smokers, notably higher Cd levels were observed only in tumor tissues (P0.01) and urine (P0.05) compared to other elements or in other specimens.

published proceedings

  • Toxicol Appl Pharmacol

author list (cited authors)

  • Tyagi, B., Chandrasekaran, B., Tyagi, A., Shukla, V., Saran, U., Tyagi, N., ... Damodaran, C.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Tyagi, Bhawna||Chandrasekaran, Balaji||Tyagi, Ashish||Shukla, Vaibhav||Saran, Uttara||Tyagi, Neha||Talluri, Sriharsha||Juneau, Andrea D||Fu, Hangcheng||Ankem, Murali K||Damodaran, Chendil

publication date

  • November 2023