Does pro-environmental attitude predicts pro-environmental behavior? Comparing sustainability connection in emotional and cognitive environments among football fans and university students. Academic Article uri icon


  • Environmental sustainability is an imperative topic in contemporary business-related research, aiming to understand and predict how individuals' environmentally friendly behaviors can be encouraged. This research aims to empirically examine the relationship between individuals' pro-environmental attitude and pro-environmental behavior; and to compare two groups of individuals that encompass emotional and cognitive links to environmental sustainability: emotionally involved sport fans and socially conscious university students. Two studies, involving more than 1400 respondents, were conducted. Study 1 uses structural equation modelling (SEM) to test the relationship between consumers' environmental attitudes and environmental behaviors. Study 2 uses SEM multigroup analysis to compare the attitudes and behaviors of sport fans and university students. The results showed that participants' pro-environmental attitude had a positive and significant effect on pro-environmental behavior. The type of consumer plays an important role in strengthening the relationship between pro-environmental attitude and pro-environmental behavior. Despite the higher average levels of pro-environmental attitude and pro-environment behavior evidenced by the sport fans, the influence of attitude on behavior is higher on socially conscious students, the group with a more cognitive and intrinsic link with the natural environment and sustainability initiatives. Despite the positive link attitudes-behaviors, empirical insights suggest that the connection between sport fans and the club is vital to reinforce the commitment with a stronger match between attitudes and behaviors. The findings also have implications for practitioners and policymakers in optimizing their strategies to encourage effective pro-environmental actions.

published proceedings

  • Heliyon

author list (cited authors)

  • Cayolla, R., Escadas, M., McCullough, B. P., Biscaia, R., Cabilhas, A., & Santos, T.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Cayolla, Ricardo||Escadas, Marco||McCullough, Brian P||Biscaia, Rui||Cabilhas, Ana||Santos, Teresa

publication date

  • November 2023