Post-Secondary Education Outcomes for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Self-Determination, Independent Living, Employment, and the Impact of COVID-19. Academic Article uri icon


  • Post-secondary education (PSE) plays an important role in preparing individuals with an intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) to gain employment and independent living. Despite the recent increase in PSE programs, however, there is a lack of research examining outcomes of individuals with IDD who have attended a PSE program. This study examined three years of data from students who participated in one PSE program that focuses on the acquisition of skills regarding self-determination, employment, and independent living. We analyzed the outcome data of program graduates regarding their acquisition of skills in employment and self-determination, as well as follow-up data on employment. It was found that participation in the program increased self-determination and post-secondary readiness. Our findings also indicated that the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the self-determination scores of participants and their employment outcomes.

published proceedings

  • Behav Sci (Basel)

author list (cited authors)

  • Zhang, D., Roberts, E., Maddalozzo, R., Li, Y., Orsag, M., & Glass, T.

complete list of authors

  • Zhang, Dalun||Roberts, Eric||Maddalozzo, Robert||Li, Yi-Fan||Orsag, Meagan||Glass, Tracy

publication date

  • October 2023