Foldable low-cost point-of-care device for testing blood coagulation using smartphones. Academic Article uri icon


  • Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) caused by thrombotic events are a significant global health concern, affecting millions of people worldwide. The international normalized ratio (INR) is the most widely used measure of coagulation status, and frequent testing is required to adjust blood-thinning drug dosage, requiring hospital visits and experts to perform the test. Here we present a low-cost and portable smartphone-based device for screening INR levels from whole blood samples at the point of care. Our device uses a 3D printed platform and light-emitting diode backlight modules to create a uniform optical environment, and its foldable design allows for easy transport. Our device also features an algorithm that allows users to acquire and process video of sample flow in a microfluidic channel on their smartphone, providing a cost-effective and convenient option for blood coagulation monitoring at the point of care. We tested the performance of our smartphone-based INR device using both commercially available control samples and clinical human blood samples, demonstrating high accuracy and reliability. Our device has the potential to improve patient outcomes by enabling more frequent monitoring and, as appropriate, dosage adjustments of blood-thinning drugs, providing an affordable and portable option for screening INR levels at the point of care.

published proceedings

  • Biosens Bioelectron

altmetric score

  • 2.1

author list (cited authors)

  • Xu, W., Althumayri, M., Mohammad, A., & Ceylan Koydemir, H.

citation count

  • 2

complete list of authors

  • Xu, Weiming||Althumayri, Majed||Mohammad, Amin||Ceylan Koydemir, Hatice

publication date

  • December 2023