Double jeopardy? Examining the influence of mathematics tracking on in-school suspensions through an intersectionality framework Academic Article uri icon


  • AbstractResearch has proven that when students are tracked and experience some form of exclusionary discipline, their risk of dropping out of school increases significantly. These effects are compounded for students from low socioeconomic households and students of color. However, there exists a gap in the literature concerning how tracking in specific subjects (mathematics) can influence disciplinary outcomes for students. This study uses the theoretical framework of intersectionality to examine the influence of mathematics tracking while taking into consideration students' identity (socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and gender), on their likelihood of receiving an inschool suspension (ISS). To examine the effects, we asked the research question: Does tracking in mathematics influence the likelihood of students receiving an ISS in the eleventh grade based on their race/ethnicity, gender, and SES identity? Using both logistic regressions with a reference group and single group, we found that enrollment in a nonadvanced course in the eleventh grade for Asian boys and girls, Latinx girls, multiracial boys and girls, and White boys and girls increased ISS odds more than their racial and SES identity. This study concludes with recommendations for educators seeking to eliminate tracking in secondary schools.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 4.35

author list (cited authors)

  • Edosomwan, K., & Williams III, J. A.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Edosomwan, Kristian||Williams III, John A

publication date

  • 2023