Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated inhibition of LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth and hormone-induced transactivation.
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LNCaP prostate cancer cells express the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces CYP1A1 protein and an Ah-responsive reporter gene. Similar results were obtained with the selective AhR modulator 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (6-MCDF); however, TCDD but not 6-MCDF induced degradation of the AhR protein. TCDD and 6-MCDF inhibited growth of LNCaP cells, and inhibitory AhR-androgen receptor (AR) crosstalk was investigated in cells transfected with constructs containing the androgen-responsive probasin promoter (-288 to +28) (pPB) or three copies of the -244 to -96 region of this promoter (pARR(3)). Ten nanomolar dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) induced transactivation in LNCaP cells transfected with pPB or pARR(3); however, inhibitory AhR-AR crosstalk was observed only with the latter construct. 6-MCDF and TCDD did not inhibit DHT- or E2-induced transactivation in ZR-75 human breast cancer cells, indicating that these interactions were promoter and cell context-dependent. Both E2 and DHT stabilized AR protein in LNCaP cells; however, cotreatment with TCDD or 6-MCDF decreased AR protein levels. These results indicate that inhibitory AhR-AR crosstalk in prostate cancer cells is complex and for some responses, AR protein stability may play a role.