Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent activity of indole ring-substituted 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-biphenyl)methanes in cancer cells. Academic Article uri icon


  • PURPOSE: 1,1-Bis(3-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes (C-DIMs) substituted in the phenyl ring with a para-, t-butyl, trifluoromethyl (DIM-C-pPhCF(3)) or phenyl (DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5)) group activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in several cancer cell lines, and DIM-C-pPhCF(3) also activates the orphan receptor Nur77. In this study, we have examined the effects of 5,5'-dihydroxy, 5,5'-dimethyl, 5,5'-dibromo, 5,5'-dinitro and 5,5'-dimethoxyindole ring-substituted analogs of DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5) on their activity as PPARgamma agonists. METHODS: Various substituted C-DIM analogs were used to investigate their growth-inhibitory activities and activation of PPARgamma-mediated transactivation in colon and pancreatic cancer cells. Their structure-dependent induction of putative PPARgamma-responsive genes/proteins including p21, KLF-4 and caveolin1 were also determined by Western and Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Introduction of the 5,5'-dihydroxy and 5,5'-dimethyl substituents enhanced activation of PPARgamma in colon and pancreatic cancer cells. However, activation of p21 in Panc28 pancreatic cancer cells and induction of caveolin-1 and KLF4 in colon cancer cells by the C-DIM compounds were structure- and cell context-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5) and indole ring-substituted analogs are selective PPARgamma modulators.

published proceedings

  • Cancer Chemother Pharmacol

altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Guo, J., Chintharlapalli, S., Lee, S., Cho, S. D., Lei, P., Papineni, S., & Safe, S.

citation count

  • 20

complete list of authors

  • Guo, Jingjing||Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar||Lee, Syng-ook||Cho, Sung Dae||Lei, Ping||Papineni, Sabitha||Safe, Stephen

publication date

  • May 2010