Activation of nerve growth factor-induced B alpha by methylene-substituted diindolylmethanes in bladder cancer cells induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth.
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Nerve growth factor-induced B (NGFI-B) genes are orphan nuclear receptors, and NGFI-B alpha (Nur77, TR3) is overexpressed in bladder tumors and bladder cancer cells compared with nontumorous bladder tissue. 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-methoxyphenyl)-methane (DIM-C-pPhOCH(3)) and 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-phenyl)methane have previously been identified as activators of Nur77, and both compounds inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of UC-5 and KU7 bladder cancer cells. The proapoptotic effects of methylene-substituted diindolylmethanes (C-DIMs) were unaffected by cotreatment with leptomycin B and were dependent on nuclear Nur77, and RNA interference with a small inhibitory RNA for Nur77 (iNur77) demonstrated that C-DIM-induced activation of apoptosis was Nur77-dependent. Microarray analysis of DIM-C-pPhOCH(3)-induced genes in UC-5 bladder cancer cells showed that this compound induced multiple Nur77-dependent proapoptotic or growth inhibitory genes including tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), cystathionase, p21, p8, and sestrin-2. DIM-C-pPhOCH(3) (25 mg/kg/d) also induced apoptosis and inhibited tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing KU7 cells as xenografts, demonstrating that Nur77-active C-DIMs exhibit potential for bladder cancer chemotherapy by targeting Nur77, which is overexpressed in this tumor type.
author list (cited authors)
Cho, S. D., Lee, S., Chintharlapalli, S., Abdelrahim, M., Khan, S., Yoon, K., Kamat, A. M., & Safe, S.
complete list of authors
Cho, Sung Dae||Lee, Syng-Ook||Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar||Abdelrahim, Maen||Khan, Shaheen||Yoon, Kyungsil||Kamat, Ashish M||Safe, Stephen