Inhalation delivery of a novel diindolylmethane derivative for the treatment of lung cancer. Academic Article uri icon


  • The purpose of this study was to determine the anticancer efficacy of 1,1-bis (3'-indolyl)-1-(p-biphenyl) methane (DIM-C-pPhCH) by inhalation delivery alone and in combination with i.v. docetaxel in a murine model for lung cancer. An aqueous DIM-C-pPhCH formulation was characterized for its aerodynamic properties. Tumor-bearing athymic nude mice were exposed to nebulized DIM-C-pPhCH, docetaxel, or combination (DIM-C-pPhCH plus docetaxel) using a nose-only exposure technique. The aerodynamic properties included mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.8 0.3 m and geometric SD of 2.31 0.02. Lung weight reduction in mice treated with the drug combination was 64% compared with 40% and 47% in mice treated with DIM-C-pPhCH aerosol and docetaxel alone, respectively. Combination treatment decreased expression of Akt, cyclin D1, survivin, Mcl-1, NF-B, IB, phospho-IB, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and increased expression of c-Jun NH-terminal kinase 2 and Bad compared with tumors collected from single-agent treatment and control groups. DNA fragmentation was also enhanced in mice treated with the drug combination compared with docetaxel or DIM-C-pPhCH alone. Combination treatment decreased expressions of VEGF and CD31 compared with single-agent treated and control groups. These results suggest that DIM-C-pPhCH aerosol enhanced the anticancer activity of docetaxel in a lung cancer model by activating multiple signaling pathways. The study provides evidence that DIM-C-pPhCH can be used alone or in combination with other drugs for the treatment of lung cancer using the inhalation delivery approach.

published proceedings

  • Mol Cancer Ther

altmetric score

  • 6

author list (cited authors)

  • Ichite, N., Chougule, M., Patel, A. R., Jackson, T., Safe, S., & Singh, M.

citation count

  • 27

complete list of authors

  • Ichite, Nkechi||Chougule, Mahavir||Patel, Apurva R||Jackson, Tanise||Safe, Stephen||Singh, Mandip

publication date

  • November 2010