Identification of a toxic impurity in commercial diphenylamine. Academic Article uri icon


  • The impurity in commercial diphenylamine which induces polycystic kidney disease in rats has been identified as N,N,N'-triphenyl-p-phenylenediamine. The structure of the compound was confirmed by mass and proton magnetic resonance spectrometry and by comparison with a synthetic standard prepared by the Ullman coupling of iodobenzene and p-phenylenediamine or N,N-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine. Laboratory studies with highly purified diphenylamine indicated that N,N,N'-triphenyl-p-phenylenediamine can be formed by heating diphenylamine.

published proceedings

  • J Environ Sci Health B

altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Clegg, S., Safe, S., & Crocker, J. F.

citation count

  • 3

complete list of authors

  • Clegg, S||Safe, S||Crocker, JF

publication date

  • January 1981