Factors associated with higher hemoglobin A1c and type 2 diabetes-related costs: Secondary data analysis of adults 18 to 64 in Texas with commercial insurance. Academic Article uri icon


  • OBJECTIVE: This study will identify factors associated with higher hemoglobin A1c (A1c) values and diabetes-related costs among commercially insured adults in Texas diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This secondary data analysis was based on claims data from commercially insured individuals 18-64 years of age residing in Texas with diagnosed type 2 diabetes during the 2018-2019 study period. The final analysis sample after all the exclusions consisted of 34,992 individuals. Measures included hemoglobin A1c, diabetes-related costs, Charlson Comorbidity Index, diabetes-related complications, rurality and other socioeconomic characteristics. Longitudinal A1c measurements were modeled using age, sex, rurality, comorbidity, and diabetes-related complications in generalized linear longitudinal regression models adjusting the observation time, which was one of the 8 quarters in 2018 and 2019. The diabetes-related costs were similarly modeled in both univariable and multivariable generalized linear longitudinal regression models adjusting the observation time by calendar quarters and covariates. RESULTS: The median A1c value was 7, and the median quarterly diabetes-related cost was $120. A positive statistically significant relationship (p = < .0001) was found between A1c levels and diabetes-related costs, although this trend slowed down as A1c levels exceeded 8.0%. Higher A1c values were associated with being male, having diabetes-related complications, and living in rural areas. Higher costs were associated with higher A1c values, older age, and higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores. CONCLUSION: The study adds updated analyses of the interrelationships among demographic and geographic factors, clinical indicators, and health-related costs, reinforcing the role of higher A1c values and complications as diabetes-related cost drivers.

published proceedings

  • PLoS One

altmetric score

  • 5

author list (cited authors)

  • Ory, M. G., Han, G., Jani, S. N., Zhong, L., Andreyeva, E., Carpenter, K., ... Smith, M. L.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Ory, Marcia G||Han, Gang||Jani, Sagar N||Zhong, Lixian||Andreyeva, Elena||Carpenter, Keri||Towne, Samuel D||Preston, Veronica Averhart||Smith, Matthew Lee

editor list (cited editors)

  • Ang, Y. G.

publication date

  • January 2023