Purification and partial characterization of feline alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (falpha1-PI) and the development and validation of a radioimmunoassay for the measurement of falpha1-PI in serum.
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Alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor (alpha(1)-PI) of the domestic cat (Felis catus) was purified from serum and a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of feline alpha(1)-PI concentration in serum was developed and validated. Feline alpha(1)-PI (falpha(1)-PI) was isolated using ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion-exchange, size-exclusion, ceramic hydroxyapatite, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The molecular weight of falpha(1)-PI was estimated at 57,000 and the relative molecular mass (M(r)) was determined to be approximately 54.5 kDa. Isoelectric focusing revealed four bands with isoelectric points (pI) between 4.3 and 4.5. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the first 19 residues was Glu-Gly-Leu-Gln-Gly-Ala-Ala-Val-Gln-Glu-Thr-Val-Ala-Ser-Gln-His-Asp-Gln-Glu. Antiserum against feline alpha(1)-PI was raised in rabbits. Tracer was produced by iodination ((125)I) of feline alpha(1)-PI using the chloramine T method. A radioimmunoassay was established and validated by determination of sensitivity, dilutional parallelism, spiking recovery, intra-assay variability, and inter-assay variability. A control range for serum feline alpha(1)-PI concentration was established from 50 healthy cats using the central 95th percentile. The sensitivity of the assay was 0.042 mg/ml. Observed to expected ratios for serial dilutions ranged from 105% to 141.18% for four different serum samples at dilutions of 1 in 35,000, 1 in 70,000, 1 in 140,000 and 1 in 280,000. Observed to expected ratios for spiking recovery ranged from 88.14% to 152.17% for four different serum samples and five different spiking concentrations. Coefficients of variation for four different serum samples were 4.57%, 6.45%, 8.52%, and 4.27% for intra-assay variability and 6.88%, 9.57%, 7.44%, and 9.94% for inter-assay variability. The reference range was established as 0.25-0.6 mg/ml. In summary, feline alpha(1)-PI was successfully purified from serum using a rapid and efficient method. The radioimmunoassay described here is sensitive, linear, accurate, precise, and reproducible and will facilitate further studies of the physiological or potential pathological role of alpha(1)-PI in cats.