Urinary biomarkers of renal disease in dogs with X-linked hereditary nephropathy.
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BACKGROUND: Sensitive and specific biomarkers for early tubulointerstitial injury are lacking. HYPOTHESIS: The excretion of certain urinary proteins will correlate with the state of renal injury in dogs with chronic kidney disease. ANIMALS: Twenty-five male colony dogs affected with X-linked hereditary nephropathy (XLHN) and 19 unaffected male littermates were evaluated. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of urine samples collected every 2-4 weeks was performed. Urine proteins evaluated were retinol binding protein (uRBP/c), 2-microglobulin (uB2M), N-acetyl--D-glucosaminidase (uNAG/c), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL/c), and immunoglobulin G (uIgG/c). Results were correlated with serum creatinine concentration (sCr), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urine protein : creatinine ratio, and histopathologic analysis of serial renal biopsies. Analytical validation was performed for all assays; uNAG stability was evaluated. RESULTS: All urinary biomarkers distinguished affected dogs from unaffected dogs early in their disease process, increasing during early and midstages of disease. uRBP/c correlated most strongly with conventional measures of disease severity, including increasing sCr (r = 0.89), decreasing GFR (r = -0.77), and interstitial fibrosis (r = 0.80), P < .001. However, multivariate analysis revealed age, sCr, uIgG/c, and uB2M, but not uRBP/c, as significant independent predictors of GFR (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: All urinary biomarkers were elevated before sCr increased, but typically after proteinuria developed in dogs with progressive glomerular disease because of XLHN. uRBP/c measurement might be promising as a noninvasive tool for diagnosis and monitoring of tubular injury and dysfunction in dogs.