Systemic levels of the anti-inflammatory decoy receptor soluble RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) are decreased in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common condition in dogs, and a dysregulated innate immunity is believed to play a major role in its pathogenesis. S100A12 is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, which is involved in phagocyte activation and is increased in serum/fecal samples from dogs with IBD. S100A12 binds to the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a pattern-recognition receptor, and results of studies in human patients with IBD and other conditions suggest a role of RAGE in chronic inflammation. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE), a decoy receptor for inflammatory proteins (e.g., S100A12) that appears to function as an anti-inflammatory molecule, was shown to be decreased in human IBD patients. This study aimed to evaluate serum sRAGE and serum/fecal S100A12 concentrations in dogs with IBD. Serum and fecal samples were collected from 20 dogs with IBD before and after initiation of medical treatment and from 15 healthy control dogs. Serum sRAGE and serum and fecal S100A12 concentrations were measured by ELISA, and were compared between dogs with IBD and healthy controls, and between dogs with a positive outcome (i.e., clinical remission, n = 13) and those that were euthanized (n = 6). The relationship of serum sRAGE concentrations with clinical disease activity (using the CIBDAI scoring system), serum and fecal S100A12 concentrations, and histologic disease severity (using a 4-point semi-quantitative grading system) was tested. Serum sRAGE concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with IBD than in healthy controls (p = 0.0003), but were not correlated with the severity of histologic lesions (p = 0.4241), the CIBDAI score before (p = 0.0967) or after treatment (p = 0.1067), the serum S100A12 concentration before (p = 0.9214) and after treatment (p = 0.4411), or with the individual outcome (p = 0.4066). Clinical remission and the change in serum sRAGE concentration after treatment were not significantly associated (p = 0.5727); however, serum sRAGE concentrations increased only in IBD dogs with complete clinical remission. Also, dogs that were euthanized had significantly higher fecal S100A12 concentrations than dogs that were alive at the end of the study (p = 0.0124). This study showed that serum sRAGE concentrations are decreased in dogs diagnosed with IBD compared to healthy dogs, suggesting that sRAGE/RAGE may be involved in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. Lack of correlation between sRAGE and S100A12 concentrations is consistent with sRAGE functioning as a non-specific decoy receptor. Further studies need to evaluate the gastrointestinal mucosal expression of RAGE in healthy and diseased dogs, and also the formation of S100A12-RAGE complexes. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.