Inhibitory SMADs: potential regulators of ovarian function.
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Transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily signaling regulates essential reproductive functions. Dysregulation of TGFB signaling results in cellular and molecular deficiencies in the ovary, leading to reproductive diseases and cancer development. SMAD proteins are canonical TGFB signaling components consisting of receptor-regulated SMADs (SMAD1/2/3/5/9), a common SMAD (SMAD4), and inhibitory SMADs (SMAD6/7). Inhibitory SMADs are negative regulators of TGFB and bone morphogenetic protein signaling, and their reproductive functions are poorly defined. Emerging evidence supports that inhibitory SMADs are potential regulators of ovarian function. Further efforts and new genetic models are needed to unveil the role of inhibitory SMADs in the ovary.
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